Much of psychology's modern structure as a profession has derived from its development as an academic discipline. Psychology has grown through undergraudate major programs of graduate training, as well as through increasing professional organization and research publication. This academic and professional structure has also made possible important theory development and refinement, including neobehaviourism and cognitive psychology.
Professional psychologists work in a broad range of fields, both in conducting experimental research and in applying research findings to the solution of practical problems. Especially in their therapeutic work, psychologists frequently work beside allied professionals trained in medicine, education and social work.
Other disciplines besides psychology employ professionals who work on similar problems.
Psychiatry is a medical specialty focusing on the diagnosis and treatment of disordered behaviour. Psychiatrists do very similar work to clinical psychologists, but while psychologists have degrees(a master's or doctorate in psychology,psychiatrists have a degree in medicine.) Psychiatrists, as licensed physicians, also have the legal power to prescribe drugs or surgery as treatments for behaviour disorders.
Psychotherapy involves a wide range of therapies or treatments for behaviour disorders. Psychotherapists employ psychological techniques like talking, instead of medical techniques like drugs or surgery, to change behaviour.
One particular kind of psychotherapy is psychoanalysis, a system of diagnosis and treatment based on the principles originally developed by Sigmund Freud. Some psychoanalysts are physicians like Freud himself, but non-MD's can also be trained as so-called "lay psychoanalysts".
Counselling refers to the broad profession of helping and guiding normal individuals with behavioural or emotional problems. Many counsellors are trained and certified by schools or departments of education rather than psychology. Others obtain master's degrees in social work and practice as psychiatric social workers. Social workers' training emphasizes treatment as part of a general provision of social services to members of a community.