Thinking can be approached in terms of both its nature - types of thinking� - and its forms and functions.
Thinking can be broadly distinguished into two kinds of processes, convergent thinking and divergent thinking.
Types of Thinking
1. Convergent Thinking
Convergent thinking is focused, deliberate, directed thinking.� It is the kind of thinking we undertake in order to recall an elusive idea, solve a problem or make a choicke.� The term "convergent" implies that, although we may approach an issue from many different directions, eventually all these approaches "converge" - come together� - on same final solution or response.
2. Divergent Thinking
Divergent Thinking characterizes the undirected thinking of daydreaming and creativity.� The term "divergent" implies that, from one starting point, subsequent thought processes may continue in different directions and culminate in different conclusions.
a. Daydreaming - Daydreaming, a form of conscious fantasizing, is considered by some researchers to be an altered state of consciousness.� Daydreaming can be a form of escape, and daydreams may involve imagining alternate circumstances when we would rather be elsewhere.� Individual differences have been found in the affect (pleasant or unpleasant) and vividness of daydreams.
b. Creativity - Creativity is the ability to produce novel and unique ideas.� Creative problem-solving relies on divergent rather than convergent thinking.� For example, creativity is demonstrated by coming up with many different uses for a simple object, like a brick or a toothpick.� There is little clear relationship between creativity and performance on most intelligence tests.� Formal education may inadvertently discourage creativity by emphasizing convergent thinking in traditional curriculum.